Critical-sized bone defects requiring supplemental grafting are frequently encountered in orthopedic trauma practice. In order to properly heal these bone defects, the resultant voids must be filled with bone graft or substitute materials to facilitate bone healing and prevent infiltration of non-osseous fibrous tissue. In response to the inherent drawbacks of autologous bone graft (e.g. supply limitations, variable quality, additional operative time, patient morbidity), synthetic bone graft substitutes have been developed and are available for clinical use. However, despite the abundance of an array of bone graft substitutes, the quest for an ideal bone graft remains elusive.
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